Choosing heating for a polycarbonate winter greenhouse
To harvest greens and vegetables throughout the year, you need to organize a winter greenhouse, to choose the best way to heat and light it. In a heated room, you can create the necessary microclimate for growing crops for both yourself and for sale. Build a winter polycarbonate greenhouse with your own hands is easy. To do this, you need to study a number of requirements for year-round facilities.
Possibilities of the heated greenhouse
Heated greenhouse has greater potential than the usual structure, not equipped with such a system. Using a heated room for growing greens, berries,fruit or vegetable crops, the plant breeder will be able to get yields throughout the year (subject to the arrangement of the lighting system). In a heated greenhouse, optimal temperature and humidity indicators are maintained, despite frost. Thanks to the creation of an artificial microclimate, it is possible to increase the percentage of seed germination, to protect seedlings from various fungal diseases, and also to harvest earlier than others.
By heating the greenhouse, it is possible to produce berries and vegetables throughout the year by collecting them several times. Thanks to the greenhouse, it is possible in the cold season to create a winter garden or a flower conservatory, increase the duration of flowering of crops, or grow exotic plants that are not adapted to the local climate. The above factors can significantly increase the profitability of the site and increase the amount of revenue if the greenhouse is used for growing plants for sale.
A year-round greenhouse is a stationary structure, during the construction of which it is important to establish a capital foundation and a reliable framework.For the manufacture of the basis of the best materials will be concrete, brick or blocks. With their help, you need to mount a strip foundation around the entire perimeter of the future construction. It is better to refuse wooden base, because wood requires frequent replacement.
Also, special attention is paid to the frame. It should abandon the use of plastic or wood. The metal frame made of galvanized steel is best suited. It will differ in durability and durability. Winter greenhouse should have a gable or arcuate roof. Such forms will prevent the accumulation of snow in winter, which will reduce the risk of structural damage.
It is worth paying special attention to the choice of polycarbonate. For ordinary unheated structures suitable thin materials (up to 8 mm). This is a budget polycarbonate, having a small mass. However, for the construction of year-round greenhouses, it is not suitable. In this case, you should give preference to polycarbonate sheets with a thickness of at least 10 mm. They will keep warm well, as well as withstand wind and snow loads.
For year-round greenhouses, it is important to choose a heating system.To do this, invented many ways to heat. They all have different features and advantages and disadvantages.
How can I heat?
In early spring, greenhouses can be heated in several ways, the choice of which will primarily depend on the purpose of the room. If you plan to heat a small building in which vegetable crops are grown for yourself, it makes no sense to purchase expensive industrial installations. In this case, suitable various furnaces or boilers.
Oven heating in greenhouses was used 20-25 years ago, but it is still relevant today. For these purposes, gardeners and gardeners use specialized boilers or barbecues, designed to maintain optimal temperature performance. When using furnaces heat is formed due to burning of fuel. The advantages of such a system are its simplicity and low cost of maintaining the temperature, and its drawbacks are low productivity and labor-intensive operation.
Heating overall polycarbonate greenhouses can be done using water or electric heating.In the first systems, it is necessary to use boilers, pumps and pipelines through which the hot coolant will move. In water heating, heat is generated by burning gas or by using electric current.
Electric heating involves the use of electrical appliances to heat the air in the greenhouse.
- Heating with cables. The principle of operation of such a system is simple: the heat cable is installed under the ground (according to the type of installation of a heated floor) and is connected to power sources. When turned on, it will heat the soil, and from it the heat will spread throughout the room. The system is economical and efficient. Most often it is used in greenhouses for growing plants in early spring or late autumn. For heating the premises in the winter, this method of heating is ineffective.
- Heat guns. The current option of heating the room without the need to purchase expensive and difficult to install units. Such equipment can be operated immediately after purchase. Most often, the device is placed under the ceiling. The fan built into the unit will “drive” warm air masses around the perimeter, ensuring uniform heating of the room.
- Convectors. The equipment is designed to be placed throughout the space. These plants quickly heat the room and do not form streams of hot air, which has a beneficial effect on the growth and productivity of plants.
Year-round greenhouses can be heated using gas systems. For these purposes, gardeners and gardeners often use catalytic burners connected either to the gas pipeline or to domestic gas cylinders. Gas heating is suitable for heating in the winter season of both large-sized and small greenhouses. The best heating systems are those that use infrared (IR) heaters. They have many advantages compared with other heating options.
Infrared heaters - the climatic equipment which is the last development for heating of greenhouses during cold seasons. These units have become the most popular among farmers and summer residents.
The principle of operation of infrared devices is similar to exposure of plants to sunlight. The equipment emits heat, which is absorbed by surrounding objects and subsequently transferred to the air.Depending on the type of installation, the room can be heated from above or below. Some growers organize high-quality heating from all sides. However, this method of heating is one of the most expensive.
Often, heaters are placed on the ceiling surface above the beds. The weight of one device is relatively small - its weight does not exceed 5 kg. Most modern greenhouses can accommodate any number of such units. Installation of IR equipment is not complicated, so installation can be done by hand without the involvement of hired craftsmen.
Advantages and disadvantages
Every year, an increasing number of growers refuse to use outdated systems for heating cold greenhouses. Today, rarely anyone heats the room with the help of "burzhuek", fan heaters or boilers for coal or wood fuel. All these methods are a thing of the past, since they have a significant drawback. These systems heat the air, which, according to the laws of physics, tends upwards, leaving the grown crops in the cool.
To solve this and many problems of heating the room once and for all managed infrared heaters.
Compared with other systems, they have several advantages.
- Optimum heat distribution around the perimeter. This effect can not boast of most types of thermal devices on the market today.
- Rapid heating of the room. The spread of heat is felt in the first minute after turning on the device. The devices work directionally, so it is possible to evenly heat a specific area. Due to this feature in one greenhouse it is possible to grow thermophilic plants and crops for which thermal energy is not so important.
- Economical consumption of electrical energy. With proper installation of equipment, it is possible to achieve energy savings of up to 40%.
- The exclusion of the occurrence of drafts and movement of warm air currents, which not all plants love.
- Silent operation of devices.
- Exception of "burning" of air oxygen. Thanks to this feature indoors optimal humidity is maintained. This is one of the most important conditions for good growth and fruiting of plants.
- Durability of devices and their uninterrupted functioning. The fact is that IR equipment does not include moving mechanisms and moving parts,which need frequent replacement.
- Small dimensions and weight of the units, causing them easy transportation and installation.
Unfortunately, no thermal equipment is not without flaws. There are downsides to infrared heaters. These include the high cost of the organization of the infrared heating system and the low fire safety of some models (mostly mobile installations). In addition, there are fake equipment from well-known brands on the market, because of which the buyer risks purchasing low-quality goods.
Types of IR heaters
Infrared equipment is classified according to several criteria. The most common classification is by type of energy source. Infrared installations can be electric, diesel or gas. Electric - one of the most popular types of heaters for the greenhouse among growers. Unlike heat guns or various convection devices, also powered by electricity, infrared units consume much less resources.
Most of these heaters look like a fluorescent luminaire with a flat body.in which lamps or tena are located.The inner part is equipped with a reflective shell designed to focus the radiation. IR electric heaters have high power and compactness. Most often they are purchased for household greenhouses. In addition to electric, manufacturers produce gas infrared heaters. They have greater thermal power than previous equipment. Most often, such installations are used to maintain the desired temperature in commercial large-sized greenhouses with a ceiling height of at least 10 meters. As a source of energy can be used coke or natural gas.
The last type of infrared heaters - diesel. They are often installed in commercial premises for growing plants for sale. Diesel units have similar performance with gas. However, they are more compact and less weighty. IR heaters are classified by appearance.
They can be executed:
- in the form of a lamp;
- in the form of a film or tape.
Unlike traditional heaters, which use lamps, film or tape unit is the most economical use of resources.
In addition, infrared heaters are light and long-wave. The first are able to heat various surfaces to 600 degrees. Therefore, such devices are designed for commercial buildings with a large area. For medium-sized and small greenhouses, it is better to purchase long-wave devices. They have less power compared to lighting devices.
IR installations, depending on the method of mounting, are divided into mobile and stationary. The first have legs or wheels, with which they move from one place to another.
Stationary models can be ceiling, suspended, wall or baseboards. Film variations are universal. They can be placed on a ceiling or wall surface, as well as under the ground. In the first case, they are mounted in a vertical position along the perimeter of the greenhouse or between the beds. In the second, the device is installed under the soil at a depth not exceeding half a meter.
Suspended units are designed for mounting in specially prepared suspended structures. Ceiling installations are attached directly to the ceiling using anchor bolts with a threaded pitch of up to 7 mm.
How to choose the performance of an infrared heater for the greenhouse, will primarily depend on the size of the room and the conditions of use of the equipment. First you need to decide on what device you need - stationary or mobile. The first is suitable for small structures. It is easy to move it from one corner to another or even use it for several greenhouses. Such equipment is economical and low efficiency, due to which it is not suitable for commercial use.
If the choice fell on stationary models, it is best to choose a ceiling modification. Such devices will not take away the useful space, but at the same time will be able to heat a large area due to the extensive range of radiation. Ceiling type heaters are most often used for large structures. Their number is calculated according to the floor space.
Less often, gardeners prefer floor heaters. If you buy such modifications, it is best to purchase products with a tubular or ceramic heating element. Such heating elements are quickly heated, serve for a long time (at least three years) and are economical (depending on the model, the power consumption ranges from 50 to 2000 W).Products with a tubular element are more expensive than ceramic, but they are more reliable and convenient to use. Their only drawback is noisy work. The functioning of such devices is accompanied by extraneous sounds - crackling or clicking.
It is recommended to refuse devices with carbonic heating elements, since they have a short service life and consume a lot of energy. In addition, these units emit a bright glow that irritates human eyes. When choosing, you should also abandon equipment with a halogen heating element. It is proved that such installations negatively affect people's health. Wall-mounted devices are most often chosen by gardeners who have no children. Otherwise, the devices must be installed so that they are outside their area of access. If you plan to place infrared heaters under the windows to prevent drafts, it is better to buy plinth products. They fit perfectly into the window opening.
When choosing an infrared heater, it is important to pay attention to its power. Devices must be selected according to the size of the room. Usually for heating 10 m2 you need a device with a power of 1000 W, but it is better to purchase units with a margin.If a wall-type heater is chosen, it is important to find out the thickness of the foil layer of the radiator. Its performance should not be below 120 microns. Otherwise, much of the energy will go to the ceiling heating.
It is important to know that to prevent excessive heating of the heater body, manufacturers use a special insulator. Before buying, you need to make sure that the device has a basalt insulation component. It is safe for human health. Some manufacturers use other raw materials and additives that produce formaldehyde when heated.
Manufacturers produce models of heaters with various functions. It is necessary to think in advance whether they will be used in the process of operation, otherwise there are great risks to overpay for something that will not come in handy later.
Devices can have the following options:
- temperature control;
- automatic shutdown of the device when it is turned over (mobile variations);
- equipment shutdown at its possible overheating;
- turning the unit on or off at the right time.
Before buying a device, you should carefully examine its case.It can be made of steel or aluminum. The first options are more durable, the second - a stylish design. On any of the buildings should not be traces of mechanical stress or rust. Corrosion can reduce the life of the device declared by the manufacturer.
How to make yourself and save on heating?
To reduce the financial costs of heating the greenhouse, located in the garden or on the plot, it is recommended to organize stove heating. This method of heating the room will allow the building to be heated to the optimum temperature, despite the weather conditions. In order for the heating system to be effective, it is necessary that the heat power of the furnace be appropriate for the volume of the greenhouse.
Oven heating is in demand among gardeners due to the following factors:
- rapid heating of the stove;
- affordable cost of fuel used;
- easy installation and operation;
- the possibility of building a furnace with his own hands from scrap materials.
The main disadvantage of furnace heating is the inability to make the heating process automatic. To ensure the optimum temperature, the plant driver will have to be constantly present in the greenhouse and put fuel into the furnace, because when it cools down, the risks of crop death are high.
For the arrangement of furnace heating, you can use the following types of furnaces.
- "Potbelly stove". Metal stove having a direct chimney. The design includes a combustion chamber, an ashpit and a fuel door. When coal or firewood is burned, the metal walls of the furnace heat up, giving off heat to the space. The advantages of using such a furnace include simplicity of fuel (for this purpose, you can even use garbage), rapid heating. Its disadvantages are low efficiency, fast cooling, uneven heating of the space and the effect on humidity.
- "Buleryan." Industrial production furnace with hollow tubes mounted into the casing through which the supply of warm air is carried out. The advantages of using buleryan are its high efficiency, economical fuel consumption and uniform heating of the space. The disadvantages include low heat capacity (the oven cools quickly, because of which it is able to heat the space only during the fire).
- Brick stove. The construction, which is allowed to use for year-round heating.This design can be performed in any shape and size (these parameters are directly dependent on the area of the greenhouse). The laying of this furnace is carried out in accordance with the diagrams and drawings for bath structures. Such devices have a high heat capacity. They evenly distribute thermal energy throughout the volume.
To install a brick capital oven, you should consider a number of recommendations:
- the structure is mounted on a solid, horizontal, concrete base;
- parts subject to strong heating should be located at a remote distance from polycarbonate greenhouse walls (at least 70 cm);
- the exit of the chimney is allowed to run through the roof or wall (in this case, the aisles are equipped with insulating materials).
To increase the efficiency, the pipe can be laid through the entire length of the room. At the same time, the space will be heated not only from the stove, but also from the heated chimney.
For information on how to heat your winter greenhouse with your hands, see the following video.